References for: Causes, evaluation, and treatment.
Medscape Women’s Health 1998 May;3(3):2 (ISSN: 1521-2076) Bick RL; Madden J; Heller KB; Toofanian A
Thrombosis Clinical Center, Department of Medicine (Hematology & Oncology), Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, Tex., USA.
- Gardner RJM, Sutherland GR: Chromosome abnormalities and genetic counseling, 2nd edition. New York, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp 59-190, 248, 313-317.
- Wolf GC, Horger EO 3rd: Indications for examination of spontaneous abortion specimens: A reassessment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173(5):1364-8, 1995.
- Lippe B: Turner syndrome. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 20(1):121-152, 1991.
- Lippman-Hand A: Genetic counseling and human reproductive loss, in Porter IH, Hook EH (eds): Human Embryonic and Fetal Death. New York, Academic Press, 1980, p. 303.
- Boue A, Boue J, Gropp A: Cytogenetics of pregnancy wastage, in Harris H, Hirschhorn K (eds): Advances in Human Genetics. New York, Plenum Press, 1985, pp 30-31.
- Coulam CB: Unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss: Epilogue. Clin Obstet Gynecol 29(4):999-1004, 1986.
- Daniel A, Hook EB, Wulf G: Risks of unbalanced progeny at amniocentesis to carriers of chromosome rearrangements. Am J Med Genet 33:14-53, 1989.
- Hsu LYF: Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities through amniocentesis, in Milunsky (ed): Genetic Disorders and the Fetus, ed 3. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992, p 160.
- Duckert F: The fibrin stabilizing factor, Factor XIII. Blut 26(3):177-179, 1973.
- Schved JF, Gris JC, Neveu S, et al: Factor XII congenital deficiency and early spontaneous abortion. Fertil Steril 52(2):335-336, 1989.
- Mammen EF: Congenital abnormalities of the fibrinogen molecule. Semin Thromb Hemost 1:184-189, 1974.
- Scott JR, Rote NS, Branch DW: Immunologic aspects of recurrent abortion and fetal death. Obstet Gynecol 70(4):645-656, 1987.
- Sartori MT, Viero M, Boeri G, et al: Thrombotic diathesis in 6 out of 14 new cases of type I plasminogen deficiency. Thromb Haemost 69:1257, 1993.
- Gris JC, Neveu S, Mares P, et al: Plasma fibrinolytic activators and their inhibitors in women suffering from early recurrent abortion of unknown etiology. J Lab Clin Med 125(5):606-615, 1993.
- Patrassi GM, Sartori MT, Ruffatti A, et al: Fibrinolytic disorders and recurrent abortions: No relationship with antiphospholipid antibodies. Thromb Haemost 69:1271, 1993.
- Bick RL, Laughlin HR, Cohen BM, et al: Fetal wastage syndrome due to blood protein/platelet defects: Results of prevalence studies and treatment outcome with low-dose heparin and low-dose aspirin. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 1:286-292, 1995.
- Dahlback B: Inherited thrombophilia: Resistance to activated protein C as a pathogenic factor of venous thromboembolism. Blood 85(3):607-614, 1995.
- Bick RL, Baker WF: Antiphospholipid and thrombosis syndromes. Semin Thromb Hemost 20(1):3-15, 1994.
- Bick RL, Baker WF: The antiphospholipid and thrombosis syndromes. Med Clin North Am 78(3):667-684, 1994.
- Sher G, Feinman M, Zouves C, et al: High fecundity rates following in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in antiphospholipid antibody seropositive women treated with heparin and aspirin. Hum Reprod 9:2278-2283, 1994.
- Bick RL, Baker WF: Anticardiolipin antibodies and thrombosis. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 6:1287-1299, 1992.
- Bick RL, Pegram M: Syndromes of hypercoagulability and thrombosis: A review. Semin Thromb Hemost 20:109-132, 1994.
- Brown HL: Antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent pregnancy loss. Clin Obstet Gynecol 34:17-26, 1991.
- Perino A, Barba G, Cimino C, et al: Immunological problems in the recurrent abortion syndrome. Acta Eur Fertil 20:199-202, 1989.
- Many A, Pauzner R, Carp H, et al: Treatment of patients with antiphospholipid antibodies during pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 28:216-218, 1992.
- Lubbe WF, Liggins GC: Role of lupus anticoagulant and autoimmunity in recurrent fetal loss. Semin Reprod Endocrinol 6:181, 1988.
- Lin QD: Investigation of the association between autoantibodies and recurrent abortions. Chinese J Obstet Gynecol 28:674-677, 1993.
- Cowchock FS, Reece EA, Balaban D, et al: Repeated fetal losses associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: A collaborative randomized trial comparing prednisone with low-dose heparin treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 166:1318-1323, 1992.
- Landy HJ, Kessler C, Kelly WK, et al: Obstetric performance in patients with the lupus anticoagulant and/or anticardiolipin antibodies. Am J Perinatol 9:146-151, 1992.
- Semprini AE, Vucetich A, Garbo S, et al: Effect of prednisone and heparin treatment in 14 patients with poor reproductive efficiency related to lupus anticoagulant. Fetal Ther 4(suppl 1):S73-S76, 1989.
- Rosove MH, Tabsh K, Wasserstrum N, et al: Heparin therapy for pregnant women with lupus anticoagulant or anticardiolipin antibodies. Obstet Gynecol 75:630-634, 1990.
- Kuttah WH: Heparin plus aspirin (Hep + ASA) is superior to aspirin alone (ASA) for the treatment of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American College Obstetricians & Gynecologists, 1994. Abstract.
- Parke, A: The role of IVIG in the management of patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent pregnancy losses, in Ballow M (ed): IVIG Therapy Today. Totowa, NJ, Humana Press, 1992, pp 105-118.
- Herbst AL, Scully RE: Adenocarcinoma of the vagina in adolescence: A report of seven cases including six clear cell carcinomas (so-called mesonephromas). Cancer 25:745-757, 1970.
- Zilianti M, Azuaga A, Calderon F, et al: Monitoring the effacement of the uterine cervix by transperineal sonography: A new perspective. J Ultrasound Med 14:719-724, 1995.
- Shirodkar VN: A method of operative treatment for habitual abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy. Antiseptic 52:299, 1955.
- McDonald IA: Suture of the cervix for unsuitable miscarriage. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp 64:346, 1957.
- Novy MJ: Transabdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage for the management of repetitive abortion and premature delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 143:44-54, 1982.
- Andrews MC, Jones HW Jr: Impaired reproductive performance of the unicornuate uterus: Intrauterine growth retardation, infertility, and recurrent abortion in five cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 144:173, 1982.
- Daly DC, Maier D, Soto-Alber RS: Hysteroscopic metroplasty: 6 years' experience. Obstet Gynecol 73:201-205, 1989.
- Neuwirth RS: Hysteroscopic management of symptomatic submucous fibroids. Obstet Gynecol 62:509-511, 1983.
- March CM, Israel R: Gestational outcome following hysteroscopic lysis of adhesions. Fertil Steril 36:455-459, 1981.
- Speroff L, Glass RH, Kase NG: Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, ed 5. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1994, pp 827-829.
- Regan L, Owen EJ, Jacobs HS: Hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone, infertility and miscarriage. Lancet 336:1141-1144, 1990.
- Clifford K, Rai R, Watson H, et al: Does suppressing luteinizing hormone secretion reduce the miscarriage rate? Results of a randomized controlled trial. Br Med J 312:1508-1511, 1993.
Dr. Bick is Director, Thrombosis Clinical Center, Department of Medicine (Hematology & Oncology), Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, Tex., and Professor at the University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex.
Dr. Madden and Dr. Toofanian are in the Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas.
Ms. Heller is Director, Genetic Counseling Associates, Dallas, Tex.
If you value this service, kindly consider a donation to the Canadian Breastfeeding Foundation (registered charity). Earmark the donation for the International Breastfeeding Centre (Newman Breastfeeding Clinic) and/or the Goldfarb Breastfeeding Program.
Donate online: canadahelps.orgDonate by mail: Canadian Breastfeeding Foundation, 5890 Monkland Ave, Suite 16, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H4A 1G2.
© 2002-2019 Lenore Goldfarb, PhD, CCC, IBCLC, ALC and contributing authors to AskLenore.info. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer: The information provided on this website is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. You should not rely on this information as a substitute for, nor does it replace, professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any specific questions or concerns about any health issue, you should consult with a qualified healthcare provider.
The AskLenore administration is not affiliated with, nor sponsored by, nor do we sell or receive any commissions or incentives from, any of the products or services that we link to on this website. Therefore, we are not responsible for the accuracy, quality, availability, or suitability of said products or services. You should always do your own research and due diligence before purchasing or using any product or service that we link to on this website.
The views and opinions expressed on the message boards are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of asklenore.info. Any content provided by our users are of their opinion and are not intended to malign any religion, ethnic group, club, organization, company, individual or anyone or anything.